Mark Twain said, "It 's easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled".
Homer is a constant source of frustration for archaeologists, for philologists and all commentators ... hundreds of pages with thousands of names, events, references, locations,
etc. But they end up confusing rather than help us to clarify them. But if the solution was different from those painstakingly elaborated over the centuries by writers? Why Homer continued to praise the art of deception? Because he slept ... or because it is he who has deceived all of us for 3000 years? And the myths are only fairy tales, or are born from real events of which we just begin to glimpse the origin?

Seven articles of Alberto Majrani on the site of archaeologist Pierluigi Montalbano with automatic translation (you can click on google translator and select INGLESE as language)
http://pierluigimontalbano.blogspot.it/search?q=majrani

Many other abstract in italian here
from the new book by Alberto Majrani entitled L'ASTUTO OMERO The CUNNING HOMER – Ulysses, Nobody, Philoctetes and the ingenious deception of the Odyssey

lunedì 19 luglio 2021

Eustathius, horn, ivory and false dreams

 A greek professor wrote to me: “A passage in the Odyssey has been puzzling me for a long time: when Penelope tells Odysseus, who is still incognito at this moment, about two different kinds of dreams. The ones which pass through the gates of horn accomplish real things, whereas those coming forth from the gates of ivory are false and deceptive. Penelope does not believe in her dream of Odysseus returning home, because it came forth from the gates of ivory. Od.19.562– 567. This to me sits well with your interpretation that it was not Odysseus that returned. Please give me your feed back on this.” I talk about it at page 116 of my book L’ASTUTO OMERO! : “Penelope tells of having dreamed of twenty geese (male geese!) pecking grain (number twenty returns) and that an eagle arrives and kills them. It is interesting to note the presence of another pun that is lost in translation; dreams, says Penelope, can enter through two doors: those of the ivory door (ἐλέφας- elefas) deceive (ἐλεφαίρονται – elefairontai), while those of the  horn door (κέρας- keras) present things that are true (ἔτυμα κραίνουσι – etyma krainousi) and therefore they are realized. Strangely, as Eustathius of Thessalonica had noted, for the ancients good and true things had an affinity with the most precious objects, but ivory is more precious than the horn: this contradiction, however, is resolved if we consider that the horn brings to mind the eye (the cornea, but also the pupil, κόρη, kore), while the ivory recalls the teeth, that is the mouth; in Homer the phrase “which word came out of the fence of your teeth” often resounds (Od. I, 64)); therefore one must believe in what is seen and not in what is said (and she sees well that what she has in front of her is not her husband).” 



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